Earth Science Facts

Earth Science Facts

Parts of the Earth


There are earth science facts here for many different parts of the earth. Find out more about these areas of earth science facts by visiting one of the sections below. The earth contains many different levels that effect life on earth differently. The solid part of the earth that we see is large. The solid part of the earth has a diameter of 12,742 km (7918 miles). The solid portion of the earth has different layers. At the top is the part we see. It is made from soil, sand and rock. We call the solid rock in the ground bedrock. The outer hard surface of the Earth is broken up into large plates. The large plates move around reshaping the Earth's surface. This is called plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is also responsible for earthquakes and volcanoes. Under the outer surface, is the inner earth which includes the mantle and the core. Scientists think the core is made out of iron and nickel. Since it is so hot in the earth's core, the metals nickel and iron may be liquid instead of a solid metal. At the Earth's surface we also see water. Water actually takes up more space on the surface of the Earth than solid land. Above the Earth's surface is the atmosphere. This is where our weather, air and protection from space come from. If we did not have an atmosphere, then besides not having any air to breathe, the suns rays would be deadly. Also meteors would hit our planet much more often than with our protective atmosphere. Our Earth is a great place to live. In fact, it is the only place in the universe where scientists have found life!

Soil and Geology of the Earth


  • The Earth's surface is supported by a complex group of plates. These plates are found in the Earth's crust and upper mantle layer. Scientists believe there are 15 major plates which move in a system called plate tectonics.

  • Bedrock, soil and water sit on top the Earth's plates

  • Scientists who study the earth's soil and rocks are called geologists.

  • There are 3 types of bedrock on Earth including metamorphic, sedimentary and igneous rock.

  • Sedimentary rock, is not found the most under the ground, but it is used most often to build and make things. One of the most popular types of sedimentary rock is limestone which is used to make lime and portland cement.

  • Sedimentary rock is also the type of rock where scientists find fossils. Fossils are remains of a plant or animals from a long time ago that were captured like an imprint in the sedimentary bedrock.

  • There are 4 classifications for soil including gravel, sand, silt and clay. Clay has the smallest particle size and gravel has the largest.

  • An engineer that designs foundations, dams, retaining walls, and repairs landslides in soil and rock is called a geotechnical engineer.

Facts about Lakes and Oceans


  • About 75 percent of the surface of the earth is covered with water. A majority of this area is the Earth's oceans and seas.

  • Approximately 96.5 percent of the water is saltwater. Saltwater cannot be consumed by people without removing the salt.

  • Almost 70 percent of the fresh water on Earth is stored in ice fields and glaciers. Only about 1 percent of fresh water on Earth is available from surface water (lakes, rivers and ponds).

  • The largest supply of fresh water from surface water in the world is in the Great Lakes.

  • Water is needed to sustain life on Earth.

earth science Great Lakes

The Great Lakes, located in North American between the United States and Canada, have one of the largest amounts of available surface fresh water (non-glacier).

Facts about the Earth's Atmosphere


Facts About Crystals

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Facts about Bedrock

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Facts about Deserts

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Glacier Facts

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Facts about Gravity

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Facts about Oceans

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Coral Reef Facts

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Niagara Falls Facts

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Facts About Trees

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Facts About Water

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The Great Lakes Facts

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Facts About Soil Erosion

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Limestone Facts

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Facts about Volcanoes

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Weather Facts for Kids

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Facts About Lake Erie

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Facts about Ice

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Facts about Fossils

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Interesting Earth Science Facts

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Facts about Plate Tectonics

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Facts about Lightning

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Facts about Tropical Rainforests

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Tornado Facts

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